Viotto Keylogger: Freemium Keylogger for the Skids

The PhishMe Research team recently received a campaign escalated by one or our analysts. We’ll explore the campaign delivery, malicious attachments, and analysis of the malicious attachments, and we’ll provide a simple method for extracting the credentials being used for this keylogger family’s data exfiltration.


The PhishMe Triage platform allows SOC analysts to identify, analyze, and respond to email threats that have targeted their organization. For this particular campaign, the suspicious email had an ARJ archive attachment, which contained a Windows PE32 executable.

lureAlthough Windows OS does not natively open archive files with the ARJ extension, a number of third-party applications, such as 7zip, will be able to extract these rarely-used archives. The content of the archive is a single PE32 executable name “DOCUMENT-71956256377.pdf.exe” which is a packed Viotto Keylogger sample, intentionally named with a double extension to entice victims to click and execute the malware.


Malicious attachment contains executable.

Since this malware was written in VB6, we can decompile the unpacked, malicious binaries to verify our classification. By viewing the VB6 forms, we can see that the hidden Form1 contains the name of Viotto Keylogger:


Decompiled VB6 forms.

Now that we have seen an example of how this malware propagates in the wild, let’s examine the family itself. When an analyst has access to a malware’s builder (an application that enables the easy customization of malware samples), we can save precious reverse engineering time by analyzing its capabilities and features to better understand how this malware behaves.


Most of the indicators that comprise a Viotto Keylogger infection can be set at build time when the actor creates the stub (the malware sample that infects a victim’s computer). In the public version 3.0.2 of the builder, the malicious actor can specify where the keylogger’s logs will be stored, the installation method for persistence, and the delivery method of the logs via SMTP and/or FTP. In the paid, private version of the builder, the actor is able to control even more settings, such as encrypting the Keylogger logs with RC4 with a hardcoded key and enabling a Screen Capture feature that periodically sends screenshots of the victim’s desktop back to the actor. Another feature included in both versions that is not highlighted in the builder’s options is the ability to capture all text copied to the victim’s clipboard.


VKL Builder’s main screen.

The storage location option for the keylogger log files can be set by the malicious actor at build time. They also have the ability to specify a custom log filename and to set hidden file attributes. The log files can be saved in the following locations on the infected machine’s disk:

  • Root (C:\)
  • Windows (C:\Windows)
  • System32 (C:\Windows\System32)
  • Program Files (C:\Program Files)
  • Application Path (copied where originally executed)
  • Temp (C:\Users\{username}\AppData\Local\Temp)
  • AppData (C:\Users\{username}\AppData\Roaming)

Options where keylogger logs will be stored.


As described above, depending on the settings enabled during built time of the stub, the actor has the ability to enable infection persistence through reboots of the infected machine. The actor can also select the option to save a copy of the executable which has the same file system options as the log file storage locations. The copy of this executable can then be executed during Windows’ start up events for persistence through computer restarts. Although multiple instances of the stub can be launched by selecting any combination of startup entries, the stub ensures it’s the only process currently running by checking the mutex (a program object lock used to avoid multiple instances of the same malware from running). The default mutex is “ViottoLogger”; however, this setting can also be changed in the builder. The following startup registry keys are viable options:

  • Current User\Run (HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run)
  • Local Machine\Run (HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run)
  • Winlogon\Shell (HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon\Shell)
  • Winlogon\Userinit (HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon\Userinit)
  • Explorer\Run (HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\policies\Explorer\Run)

Windows startup persistence options.

Keylogger Data Exfil

Viotto Keylogger is capable of sending the recorded keystrokes, clipboard contents, and screenshots to the perpetrator in an email (via SMTP) or to a file server (via FTP). The email option can be delivered to open relays that do not require authentication or to accounts that require authentication over SMTP using Transport Layer Security (TLS). By utilizing TLS, the account credentials and email contents will be encrypted in transit. Most of the VB6 code in this keylogger was copied from sources freely available on the internet, as indicated in the builder’s About screen:


Extracting Exfil Credentials

Skids wishing to use this malware creator be forewarned: your email and FTP credentials can be easily obtained! Although most of these samples in the wild will be packed, a quick and easy way to extract the malware actor’s credentials being used for victim data exfiltration is by analyzing the application’s process memory. Analysts are not only able to extract this information on the same machine utilizing a program such as Process Hacker, but personally, I prefer keeping my memory analysis tools outside of the infected machine by analyzing full VM RAM dumps with either the Rekall or Volatility memory analysis frameworks. We can also extract the malware sample’s configuration, including any SMTP/ FTP exfil credentials, statically. The malware sample’s configuration is stored plaintext in the Resources section of the stub:


The decompiled FindResource section loads the stub configuration.

The PhishMe Research team also wrote a Python script to extract the Viotto Keylogger configuration from an unpacked sample:



The recent sighting of the freely-available Viotto Keylogger in the wild reminds us that cybercrime has a low barrier to entry and that tools built years ago continue to be used to exploit unsuspecting users. PhishMe Simulator trains and encourages users to recognize and report the type of email messages that are delivering this threat. The next step is to act on those reports, and PhishMe Triage enables your team to sift through all reports and quickly and efficiently act on the ones that pose a threat to your organization. Click here to learn more.


Related SHA256 Hashes




Download the Viotto Keylogger yara rule or the configuration extractor.


Cyber Crime: The Unreported Offense

On July 22, 2016 the UK’s Office for National Statistics released crime details for the year ending March 2016.  For the first time, this data included information about fraud and computer misuse offenses, which was compiled in the National Crime Survey for the first time in October 2015. While the police recorded 4.5 million offenses from March 2015 to March 2016, the survey indicates there were likely 3.8 million fraud instances and 2 million computer misuse instances during that same year, with the vast majority of these crimes being unreported to law enforcement.  The report has caused for a new call for additional cyber crime reporting at all levels.  In the UK, consumers and businesses alike are encouraged to submit suspicious activities and cases of loss to ActionFraud: the National Fraud & Cyber Crime Reporting Center.  ActionFraud also offers a Business Reporting Tool for bulk submissions by businesses of both fraud and scam emails.*

Earlier in July, the UK’s National Crime Agency also released their report “Cyber Crime Assessment 2016.”   The primary point made by the NCA report is the “need for a stronger law enforcement and business partnership to fight cyber crime.”

NCA Cyber Crime Assessment 2016The NCA report called special attention to the sophisticated abilities of international crime groups, making them “the most competent and dangerous cyber criminals targeting UK businesses.”  These groups are behind the most sophisticated financial crimes malware.

“This malware is a substantial source of financial crime in the UK, with three variants: DRIDEX, NEVERQUEST and DYRE /DYREZA, appearing frequently and responsible for many hundreds of thousands of individual crimes in 2015.”

The report also highlights the danger of ransomware and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks.

While arrests were made in the DRIDEX case, the same botnet is now the leading source of the Locky ransomware family, the focus of more than 50 PhishMe Intelligence reports in the past month alone!

Statements made in March by Sir Bernard Hogan-Howe, the police commissioner of the Metropolitan Police of London, received mixed reviews when he said that banks that refunded their customers after cyber incidents were “rewarding them for bad behavior” instead of teaching them to be safer online.  The GCHQ suggested that 80% of consumer-facing cyber crime could be stopped just by choosing safer passwords and keeping one’s systems updated with current security patches.

The NCA report points out, however, that it isn’t just consumers who are not pulling their weight in the fight against cyber crime.  Businesses also have a responsibility to do more.   The report urges corporate board of directors to make sure that their information technology teams are not merely checking the boxes required of compliance regulations, but taking an active role in assisting the cause by ensuring that their businesses are reporting cyber crime incidents.  As widely seen in the United States, one may be compliant with PCI, Sarbanes Oxley, HIPAA, and other regulatory standards yet still be extremely vulnerable to the type of sophisticated cyber attacks presented by these sophisticated international crime groups.Moving beyond Box-Ticking cyber security

“Directors also have an important role in addressing the under-reporting of cyber crime which continues to obscure the full understanding of, and hence responses to, cyber crime in the UK. In particular, we urge businesses to report when they are victims of cyber crime and to share more intelligence, both with law enforcement and with each other.”

– NCA Strategic Cyber Industry Group

Dridex, NeverQuest, Dyre, Ransomware – Meet PhishMe Reporter & Triage

At PhishMe, we are intimately familiar with the prevalence of the malware families discussed in the UK government’s reports.  We provide detailed intelligence reports to our customers about all of those malware families, which are among the most common email-based threats that we encounter as we scrub through millions of each emails each day to identify the greatest threats and get human-driven analysis about those threats back out to our customers.

We support the security strategy and defense posture recommended by the NCA Strategic Cyber Industry Group.  Our industry must move from reactive, check-box security mentality to a proactive method of gathering and analyzing security incident reporting.  PhishMe customers not only have the ability for every employee to become part of the solution to “under-reporting” with a click of the mouse on the “Report Phishing” button, but also to share that information back to PhishMe to allow us to provide indicators that help protect ALL customers and to help inform our law enforcement partners.

PhishMe Reporter

The PhishMe Reporter Button

PhishMe Triage provides a single place for all of those employee reports to be integrated, if your business would like to answer the call to do more information sharing about these top malicious threats. By providing a dashboard-driven interface to all employee-reported malicious emails, the security team can quickly spot the most dangerous trends, confirm the facts, and report to law enforcement, as recommended in the UK’s National Crime Agency report.

In addition, PhishMe Intelligence customers received over 2,500 malware email campaign reports in addition to more than 600,000 individual phishing reports that can be used as an intelligence feed to strengthen your corporate defenses against these malicious actors.

We look forward to partnering with our UK-customers, and all of our customers, who choose to take an active stance in the fight against cyber crime by answering the call for increased vigilance and reporting.


* – U.S. businesses are encouraged to report cyber crime and fraud to the FBI’s Internet Crime & Complaint Center,


Phishing with Encoded IP Addresses

I was adding a little special sauce to this past week and thought this might be fun to share. We have a few different ways a user can craft their phishing links. If he/she chooses the IP address option, then there is also the choice of encoding options. This lets you mask the IP address in an attempt to trick the user into thinking part of the sub directory is perhaps the host name. Or as in the case with my mom… she thinks it is just the phone number so the computer knows where to call. And it’s hard to blame her when you see a decimal encoded IP address.


The team over at Marshal has put together a good walk through of the encoding so you can follow along. If you would like to view the javascript, you can find it here. This may not work on all browsers, but it holds up pretty well on your corporate windows boxes with IE or Firefox. Want to test it out? Just put in an IP address below and click on the link it generates.